Inhibition of the Reaction Kinetics of the Enzyme o-Diphenol Oxidase
The aim of this experiment is to investigate the kinetics of an enzyme-catalysed reaction, and the kinetics in the presence of an inhibitor. This relates physical chemistry to a “real world” application – the action of a biological catalyst, o-diphenol oxidase (oDPO). Better students need to be challenged by extensions to the experiment, which is easily achieved since the complexity of biological systems offers many avenues for exploration.
The Identification of Drugs by Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy
Group Theory and the Near-Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of Gas-Phase Benzene
Electronic Spectra of Benzene
The Determination of the Dissociation Constant of a Weak Acid by Titration
Determination of Silver by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
In this exercise students will use ASV to determine concentration of silver ions in a given water sample. As part of the experiment students will gain better understanding of the ASV method by investigating the effect of accumulation or deposition time, performing chemical pre-treatment on the working electrode, analysing samples which contain two metal ions with similar stripping potentials, determining the difference in accuracy between two calibration methods and finally analysing a given water sample containing unknown quantity of silver ions.
An IR Investigation of the CO Dipole Direction and Other Properties
The infrared absorption spectra of gaseous carbon monoxide and atmospheric air (background containing carbon dioxide and water vapour) are recorded. The carbon monoxide spectrum is analysed in terms of molecular vibrations and rotations, various molecular properties and parameters, including the carbon oxygen bond length, are determined from the spectrum. The novel feature of this exercise is that the spectroscopic information is used to discuss the CO bond order, molecular dipole direction and other properties. An unusual feature is that the first overtone is measured (1,2), in addition to the fundamental vibrational transition.
The Emission Spectroscopy of C2 Produced in a Hydrocarbon / Oxygen Flame
In this experiment, the electronic emission spectra of small, diatomic, radicals produced in a hydrocarbon/oxygen flame are recorded and the C2 spectrum is analysed. The experiment begins by having the students observe the emission spectra of atomic species generated in relatively intense discharge lamps. In this way, they become familiar with data collection and interpretation strategies in a relatively straightforward manner. They then move on to study emission spectra of less luminous species present in a flame where they identify common radical species such as C2, CH and/or OH.
Determination of Quinine using a Non Aqueous Titration Method
As a contextual analytical and forensic learning tool this experiment is ideal. The subject matter is topical for forensic chemistry and the approach stresses analytical accuracy as a goal. The experiment supports a fundamental area of chemistry, that of acid base chemistry, as well as introducing students to the importance of thinking outside the box for analysis methods.
Kinetics of Hydrolysis of Acetylsalicylic Acid, Aspirin
In this experiment, students examine the hydrolysis of aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, under different conditions. The hydrolysis of aspirin occurs much more rapidly in basic conditions, a fact which is illustrative of an important principle in pharmacology. That is, the stability of drugs and their mechanisms of action can be strongly dependent on the pH conditions of the body system in which they operate. This experiment includes a quantitative kinetic study of the hydrolysis of aspirin under basic conditions.
This is the introductory transition metal chemistry experiment given to second year students doing inorganic chemistry at James Cook University. The experiment examines the preparation of three labile transition metal complexes and examination of some properties like solubility and reactivity in acid or base. The students are asked to observe the behaviour of the complex under these conditions and give a plausible explanation (using chemical equations) for their observations.
The Enzyme Catalysed Hydration of Fumaric Acid to Malic Acid
This experiment involves the reaction of water with fumaric acid to form malic acid. The analogous experiment with D2O may be followed by H-NMR, through either syn or anti addition across the double bond to provide two possible diastereoisomers. Through the H-NMR the coupling constant of vicinal protons in the product, the vicinal Karplus correlation diagram (pictorial representation) is used to predict which isomer is formed.
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution #2
The experiment is effective in part because students are not distracted by difficult or complex manipulations in the laboratory. The student is exposed to a wide range of concepts related to electrophilic substitution reactions, including identifying suitable reagents to supply a particular alkyl group, the consequences of introducing an activating group (such as alkyl), alkyl rearrangements, steric hindrance, and reaction of an electrophile can compete with its rearrangement.
Dye Sensitised Nanocrystalline Solar Cell – Fabrication and Performance Measurement
In this experiment students fabricate a photovoltaic cell based on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide as the semiconductor. An organic dye is used to sensitise the semiconductor by complexing with the titanium dioxide and adsorb the light required to power the cell. An electrolyte solution is used to complete the circuit by replacing the electrons lost by the dye via light absorption. The completed cell consists of a sandwich of titanium dioxide, dye, electrolyte and catalyst between two conducting transparent electrodes.
Fingerprints: Iodine Fuming and Electron-Donor-Acceptor Complexes
The experiment is divided into three parts:
- Visualising a fingerprint using the iodine-fuming procedure and characterising the print using solid-state UV-Vis;
- Synthesis and characterisation of a iodine-donor complex; and,
- Comparison of the thermodynamic (equilibrium constant and molar extinction coefficient) values for several donors and iodine by solution UV-Vis.
Iodine fuming is one of the first methods used to acquire fingerprints; however, this has been replaced by better methods. The exposure of iodine to fingerprint residue allows the visualisation of the “invisible” print. The reaction between iodine and fingerprint residue (amino acids) leads to the formation of charge transfer complexes. Charge transfer complexes exhibit very high equilibrium constants, and thus, are easy to study. Once the fingerprint is developed using “iodine-fuming” procedure, various other donors will be examined and their thermodynamic properties discussed in relation to the donor. It is hoped that the students will be able to appreciate that fingerprint development using iodine fuming is based on electron-donor-acceptor complexes.
Synthesis and Characterisation of Gold-Silver Nanoparticles
This experiment involves the synthesis of gold nanoparticles and a series of gold / silver nanoparticles with differing compositions. The nanoparticles are readily prepared by using citrate ion as a reductant with aqueous solutions containing either gold chloride [HAuCl4] or mixtures of gold chloride and silver nitrate. They are then characterised by measurement of their visible absorption spectra and particle size distributions.
Preparation of Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) and Thin-Layer Chromatography of Analgesic Drugs
The experiment is carried out as part of the 1st year organic course, which teaches the basic principles of organic chemistry, such as classes of compounds, types of bonds, types of reactions etc. The experiment demonstrates one particular type of organic reaction (esterification) so the lecturer should have covered the theory of esterification as well as the basic principles of chromatography before the experiment is carried out.
You Hit the Nail on the Head – Synthesis and Analysis of an Iron Oxalate Complex
During this exercise students are able to synthesise a complex, iron oxalate, and then analyse it via colourimetry to determine the amount of iron present. This data coupled with other analytical data – microanalysis and thermal gravimetric analysis, enables the students to deduce the molecular formula for the complex.
Oxidation-Reduction Chemistry of Manganese
Students prepare a pale-yellow tetrahedral complex of manganese(II) and a brown-black stable octahedral complex of manganese(III). Students carry out a series of solution-phase reactions to demonstrate transformations between some oxidation states of manganese, and to rationalise the reactions in terms of standard reduction potentials, E° . The progress of the reactions can be followed using the characteristic colours of the different oxidation states.